Povijest trbušnog plesa

Nekada davno, biti plesačica i biti žena, značilo je nešto uzvišeno. Tada se trbušni ples smatrao svetim plesom.

Sami korijeni trbušnog plesa, zadiru dublje u povijest, u pretpovijest koja je postojala mnogo prije pisanog pisma…u vrijeme od prije nekoliko tisuća godina pr.n.e. , vrijeme Neolita, kada se štovala Boginja.

Drevni trbušni ples u prošlosti je bio korišten kao oblik obožavanja Boginje.

U pradavnim kulturnim hramovima žene su bile svećenice. Bile su poznate kao kreatorice života i štovane kao prirodne iscjeliteljice i tražene zbog svojih moći i darova.

Zahvaljujući utjecaju plesa na ljudski duh, ovaj ples je uspio sačuvati tajne drevnih kultova plodnosti sve do danas, unatoč moralnim i kulturalnim predrasudama.

Izvorno, žene su ga plesale između sebe kada bi slavile život i kada bi izvodile rituale u kojima su kroz ples obožavale Boginju.

 Once upon a time, being a dancer and being a woman meant something sublime. Then bellydance was considered as sacred dance.

Roots of belly dance goes deeply into the history, prehistory, which existed long before a written letter… at the time of thousands of years before Christ, during the Neolithic period.

Ancient belly dancing, in the past, has been used as a form of Goddess worship.

In ancient cultural temples women were priestesses. They were known as the creators of life and respected as a natural healer and required for its power and gifts.

Thanks to the influence of dance to the human spirit, this dance has managed to preserve the secrets of the ancient fertility cults until today, despite the moral and cultural biases.

Originally, women were danced among themselves when they celebrated life and when they would perform a ritual in which they worship the Goddess through dance.

Postojala su tri glavna plesa:

  1. Ples plodnosti – pomoću kojeg bi žena budila Boginju plodnosti u sebi, te oživljavala senzualnost, ljepotu, nježnost, ženstvenost, erotičnost i seksualnost. Ovo je vrsta tantričkog plesa.
  2. porođajni ples – pomoću kojeg bi se žena spajala sa Velikom Majkom, te budila majčinske osjećaje u sebi i pripremala svoje tijelo za porod. Tradicionalno ovaj ples se naziva Zar.
  3. svadbeni ples – ovaj ples se tradicionalno izvodio (i još uvijek izvodi) na vjenčanjima, gdje bi trbušna plesačica predvodila svadbu sa svijećnjakom na glavi. Njezin ples predstavljao je blagoslov za plodnost i sreću budućeg bračnoga para, a svijeće na njezinoj glavi označavale su put svjetla u njihovom budućem zajedničkom životu. Danas ovaj ples tradicionalno se naziva Raqs Shamadan.

Gawazee ili “Osvajačice srca” – plesačice iz pradavnih vremena

S obzirom da se malo zna o Neolitskom vremenu, mnogi smatraju kolijevkom trbušnog plesa Egipat, zbog postojanja mnogih zapisa i crteža koji potvrđuju povijest plesa.

U starom Egiptu ples je bio neophodan dio kulture. Ljudi svih staleža svakodnevno su na ovaj ili onaj način bili okruženi plesom. Tamošnje plesove moglo se svrstati u 6 kategorija:

  • religiozni plesovi,
  • ne-religiozni svečani plesovi,
  • haremski plesovi,
  • plesovi za gozbe,
  • borebeni plesovi,
  • ulični plesovi.

Najviše je bilo lutajućih uličnih plesača i plesačica koji su zabavljali prolaznike. Haremske žene bile su podučavane u plesu i glazbi, i one su plesale haremske plesove koji su se izvodili daleko od oka javnosti.Postojale su i plesne grupe koje se moglo unajmljivati (i bile su jako dobro plaćene!) za svečanosti i gozbe. Zatim, bile su tu i religijske plesačice, svećenice, koje su izvodile obrede i plesne rituale.

Oko 1500 god. pr.n.e. u stari Egipat stigle su Bayadere– elegantne indijske hramske plesačice, koje su uvele eleganciju u ples. Kako je egipatska civilizacija rasla strane kulture, te njihovi običaji i bogatstvo doseljavali su se u Egipat.

Nakon Novog Kraljevstva dolazi do raznih invazija, promjena – raznih utjecaja od stranih zemalja. Prema zapisima, u 30. godini prije Krista Egipat je postao Rimska provincija, a ”Plesačice s Nila” poslane su u Rim i tako je egipatska plesna kultura počela utjecati i na rimsku.

Zbog nedostataka zapisa, ne može se točno utvrditi povijest Ghawazee plesačica. Negdje oko 5. stoljeća Romi započinju svoje migracije u Tursku, Egipat, sjevernu Afriku i Europu. Romi su živjeli od zabavljanja ljudi, najviše plesom, i tako su za sobom u svakoj zemlji ostavili svoj utjecaj na ples. Negdje od 15. stoljeća Romi su se smjestili u Istambul.

Turske plesove moglo se podijeliti u 3 kategorije:

  • religijski plesovi (sufi ples),
  • plesovi iz užitka (narodni plesovi),
  • plesovi kao spektakl.

There were 3 main dances:

  1. Fertility dance – whereby a woman has woke fertility goddess within herselves and revived sensuality, beauty, gentleness, femininity, eroticism and sexuality. This is the kind of tantric dance.
  2. Birth dance – whereby woman could be connected with the Great Mother, and have awakened maternal feelings in herselves and preparing her body for labor. Traditionally this dance is called Zar.
  3. Wedding dance – this dance was traditionally performed (and still is) at weddings, where belly dancers led a marriage with a candlestick on the head. Her dancing was a blessing for fertility and happiness of the future married couple, and the candles on her head marked the path of light in their future life together. Today, this dance is traditionally called Raqs Shamadan.

Gawazee or “Winner of hearts” – dancers from ancient time

Since little is known about the Neolithic period, many historians considered Egypt as the cradle of the belly dance, due to the existence of numerous records and logs that confirm the history of dance.

In ancient Egypt, the dance has been an indispensable part of the culture. People of all classes on a daily basis in one or other way were surrounded by dancing. These dances we can classified into 6 categories:

  • religious dances
  • non-religious ceremonial dances,
  • harem dances,
  • dances for festivals,
  • combet dances,
  • street dance.

Mostly there were street dancers who entertained passersby. Harem women were taught in dance and music, and they dance harem dances that were performed far away from the public eye. There were also dance groups that could be hire (and they were very well paid!) during ceremonies and feasts. Then, there were the religious dancers, priests, who performed dance rituals.

About 1500 years before Christ in Egypt arrived Bayadere – elegant Indian temple dancers, who have introduced elegance to the dance. How the Egyptian civilization grew foreign cultures and their customs have immigrated to Egypt.

After the New Kingdom comes to the various invasions, changes – the impact of various foreign countries. According to the records, in the 30th BC Egypt became a Roman province, and “Dancers of the Nile” ware sent to Rome, where the Egyptian dance culture began to influence the Roman.

Because of the lack of records, one can not accurately determine the history of ghawazee dancers. Somewhere around the 5th century Gypsies begin their migration to Turkey, Egypt, North Africa and Europe. Gypsies were living from entertaining people, mostly dancing, and so they have left in every country their impact on the dance. Somewhere from 15th century Gypsies were settled in Istanbul.

Turkish dances would be divided into three categories:

  • Religious dance (Sufi dancing),
  • Dances for pleasure (folk dances),
  • Dance as spectacle.

Budući da je muslimanskim ženama bilo dozvoljeno zabavljanje jedino u krugu žena u zatvorenim prostorima, žene su često radile zabave jedne za druge ili su unajmljivale plesačice da ih zabavljaju. I tako su žene iz generacije u generaciju plesnu tradiciju prenosile i sačuvale sve do danas.

Plesačice koje su žene zabavljale glazbom i plesom nazivale su se Chengi. Chengi su plesale u haremima, javnim kupalištima i ostalim zatvorenim prostorima namijenjenim samo za žene. Izvodile su krugove, osmice, spirale, shimije uz činelice i sa velom. One su bile iznimno popularne zabavljačice.

Migrirajući sve južnije u Egipat, Romske Chengi plesačice postaju sve slobodnije u svojim nastupima i počinju nastupati i pred muškom publikom. Tada dobivaju novi naziv Gawazee plesačice.

Gawazee u prijevodu sa egipatskog znači OSVAJAČICE SRCA…

U svoj ples Gawazee-janke dodaju ondulacije torza, te osim činelica i vela, počinju plesti i sa mačevima, štapovima i svijećnjacima.

Dok bi one plesale ljudi bi im pod noge bacali kovane novčiće – odatle potječe ukrašavanje plesne odjeće novčićima. Što je više imala novčića na svojoj odjeći to je bila bolja plesačica – novčići su označavali status među plesačicama, a s druge strane, ušivanje novčića na odjeću predstavljalo je sigurnost, jer je to bilo jedino mjesto na kojem je njihov novac bio “osiguran od krađe”.

Gawazee plesačice bile su profesionalne, putujuće plesačice koje su zarađivale mnogo novaca. Među njima, tada su se preferirala ženska djeca, jer su žene plesom uzdržavale obitelj, priskrbljivale sredstva i slavu, i slavom i dobar brak.

Oblačile su svilu i nosile bogat nakit oko gležnjeva, ruku, vrata, te novčića na čelu i rinčice u nosu. Oči su ocrtavale ugljenom, a ruke i noge su ukrašavale kanom (što je označavalo višu klasu).

1798. godine u Kairo stiže Napoleon sa svojim vojnicima. Prvi put vidjevši Gawazee-janke Napoleonovi vojnici su ih prozvali Ciganskim plesačicama. Prema naredbi jednog generala 400 Gawazee plesačica Napoleonovi vojnici su uhvatili, zatočili, silovali, te im odrubili glave i tijela im bacili u Nil.

Nakon toga, Francuzi su otvorili javne kuće i prisili Gawazeejike da rade u njima. Od tada, pa sve do kraja 19. stoljeća Egipat je postao glavno trendovsko mjesto za bogataše iz zapadne Europe.

Sami Egipćani su imali drugačiji stav prema plesačicama. Zbog mnogobrojnosti plesačica donijeli su zakon o školovanju plesačica u glazbenoj umjetnosti.

Takve učene plesačice dobivaju novi naziv – Ahmel I tako Ahmel plesačice postaju dio privatnih harema podučavajući umijeće ljubavi putem senzualnih plesova. Za razliku od Gawazee plesačica – uličnih plesačica, Napoleonovi vojnici nisu nikada vidjeli Ahmel plesačice. Neke od njih bile su dio religioznih obreda i tada bi plesale sa zmijama.

Since the Muslim women were allowed only dating women indoors, women often made parties within themselves or they hire other women dancers to entertain them. And so the women from generation to generation passed down dance tradition and preserved until today.

Dancers who were entertained other women with music and dancing were called Chengs. Chengs danced in harems, public baths and other enclosed spaces intended for women only. They were performed circles, eights, spirals, shimies with cymbals and veil. They were extremely popular entertainers.

As migrating to the south of Egypt, Gypsy Cheng dancers become freer in their appearances and started performing in front of a male audience. Then they get a new name Gawazee dancers.

Gawazee translated from Egyptian means “HART TAKER…”.

In their dance Gawazee dancers added torso undulations, and except cymbals and veil, they danced with swords, sticks and candelabra.

While they danced, people would throw them coins under the feet – hence the decoration of dance clothes was with coins. The more coins had on her clothes she was a better dancer – coins were marked status among the dancers; and on the other hand, sewing coins on clothes was a security because it was the only place where their money has been “secured against theft”.

Gawazee dancers were professional, traveling dancers who were making a lot of money. Between them female children were preferred because women were supporting a family with dance, and with dance supplied the funds, fame, glory, and a good marriage.

They wore silk clothes, rich jewelry worn around the ankles, arms, neck, and a coin on the forehead and earrings in the nose. The eyes are outlined with coal, and the hands and feet are decorated with henna (which meant a higher class).

At 1798th Napoleon arrived in Cairo with his soldiers. First time seeing Gawazee dancers Napoleon’s soldiers were called them Gypsy dancers. Under the command of General 400 Gawazee dancers Napoleon’s soldiers were captured, imprisoned, raped, and beheaded and their bodies thrown into the Nile.

After that, the French opened a brothel and forced Gawazee dancers to work in them. From then until the end of the 19th century, Egypt has become a major trendy place for the rich from Western Europe.

The Egyptians between themselves have had a different attitude towards the dancers. Because of the too many dancers Egyptians brought the law that dancers should educate in the musical arts.

Such educated dancers were getting a new name – Ahmel.  Ahmel dancers has become part of private harem and were teaching the art of love through sensual dances. Unlike Gawazee dancers – street dancers, Napoleon’s soldiers have never seen Ahmel dancers. Some of them were part of religious rites and then danced with snakes.

Eva Cernik kaže:

…Postojalo je vrijeme kada su plesačice prodavali na dvor kao roblje ili kao vlasništvo bogatih. Neke su se dobro prilagodile, a neke su očuvale svoju nezavisnost na vrlo zanimljiv način. Počele su plesati s mačevima koji su se normalno koristili u bitkama. Nisu zamahivale s njima kako se to činili muškarci u borbi, radije su ga nježno balansirale na glavi, plešući neustrašivo, izražavajući sebe ispod mača. ‘Ti kontroliraš moj život, ti držiš mač iznad moje glave, ali ne možeš kontrolirati moj duh…

Sam naziv trbušni ples, jest zapadnjački naziv za ovaj ples načinjen od francuske fraze: Dance du ventre ili “ples trbuha”.

Za popularnost trbušnog plesa na zapadu zaslužna je plesačica imenom Little Egypt, koja je postala popularna u Chicagu.

Ubrzo nakon toga trbušni ples se počinje prikazivati na jedan vulgaran i iskrivljeni zapadnjački način i time gubi svoju izvornost i pravi smisao, koji iako je umjetnička forma, još uvijek ostaje neuhvaćen u području čarolije…

Eva Cernik says:

.. There was a time when dancers were sold as slaves to the palace, or as property of rich men. Some were well-adjusted, and some maintain their independence in a very interesting way – they started to dance with swords that are normally used in battles. Not swinging with them as did the men in the battle, rather they gently balanced it on their heads, dancing undaunted, expressing itself under the sword – ‘You control my life, you’re holding a sword over my head, but you can not control my inner freedom and self-beeing …

The name Bellydance is a Western name for this dance, was made from the French phrase: Dance du ventre, or “dance of belly”.

For the popularity of belly dancing in the West dancer named Little Egypt was credited, which became popular in Chicago.

Shortly after that belly dancing begins to entertain on vulgar and distorted Western way, and is losing its originality and genuine meaning, which although the art form, still remains uncaught in the field of magic …